About the Monazite Alliance

The USA is dependent on other countries for materials that are critical to our technology and defense. A domestic supply chain for critical materials will ensure domestic resources are used for domestic purposes in support of American critical material independence.

Some of these critical materials include zirconium in zircon which is used for precision investment casting to create high-strength turbine blades for airplanes; titanium is refined into titanium dioxide or titanium metal. Titanium adds strength to metal alloys and is lighter and stronger than steel. Titanium adds strength to metal alloys and is lighter and stronger than steel.

Rare Earth Elements are abundant in the mineral monazite. Monazite is the right choice as a source of rare earth elements because of the breadth and enrichments of rare earth elements (REE) in comparison to other rare earth minerals. Placer deposits (liberated minerals reworked by wind, water, etc.) host monazite in small concentrations with other valuable heavy minerals. Placer deposits are more easily mined at low cost (versus hard rock mining). This cost advantage, teamed with the higher percentage of REE as well as their geographic distribution across the Americas make it the best baseline resource upon which to build rare earth element supply chains. Monazite also contains thorium, an energy source waiting for development. Until thorium is a salable product, monazite consumers must be capable and permitted to dispose of the thorium liberated from monazite.

Aspects of a Domestic Critical Minerals Alliance

  • Comprised of properties, miners, processors and customers
  • Work by the Alliance includes data review, recommendations, fieldwork, laboratory analysis and interpretation, sampling, bulk sample processing, mineral product development, tolling arrangements, and material sales to consumers.


Small Mines: After diligent fieldwork, and economic analysis, small mines can produce monazite as a primary material from deposits, or from process streams related to other commodities. Mine and processing equipment investments are scaled to the size and capability of the investment. Small mines benefit from the technology and know-how and the negotiating power of the Alliance and can sell directly to consumers or sell concentrate to one of the Alliance’s toll processors.

Large Mines: When large-scale deposits are developed, they require significant investment and diverse mineral product streams to generate required profit. In order to succeed, large mines need to ensure monazite does not contaminate other mineral products and be recovered at a quality that is salable. Because large mines often have their own mineral separation plant, it is imperative products maintain quality requirements and workers are protected from radioactivity exposure. As part of the Alliance, these large mines enjoy the Alliance benefit of brokers’ sales of critical minerals (not just monazite) to domestic and international customers.

Toll Processors: To avoid major capital outlay for a mineral separation plant, Alliance members can sell their mineral concentrates for separation into products by a toll processor. These can be stand alone facitiies, or those tied to larger mines. Toll processors play a critical role as enabler of small or capital-constrained miners. Toll processors can receive material from sources domestic and abroad and require permitting for concentrating radioactive minerals.

Monazite Consumers: Consumers crack and leach the monazite, disposing of wastes and recovering and separating rare earth elements. Once the elements are separated, they can then be sold as oxides or carbonates to customers, or further processed into metal alloys for development of rare earth permanent magnets for plethora uses in the green energy transition. REE are critical for the development of green technologies such as electric cars, wind turbines, cell phones, and defense systems.

Supply Chain Support

  • Resources delineation
  • Economic evaluation
  • Process development
  • Mining and concentration
  • Mineral separation and sales
  • Reclamation of mined sites
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